Article 17

Lecture by Oluwatosin Dixon

The NBM of Africa is a Pan African organization that was formed to tackle the ills facing Africa’s quest for equality and social justice. The formation had as one its objectives the freeing  of African minds from mental slavery with members encouraged to be zealous in the promotion, preservation and protection of our culture and heritage.

The basic essentials of NBM are: Pan Africanism and Brotherhood including the universal brotherhood of mankind predicated upon Social Justice and Equality.
Internal Brotherhood and Fraternity - Brotherhood is in its simplest form, how you see and treat your mother's children. But I will go further than this during this lecture.

Social Justice and Equality is another key essential of Neo-Blackism as an ideology but to examine Social Justice and Equality will take us another full Symposium to discuss where other participants will present their own perspectives.

For our purposes today, we will examine Pan-Africanism and Brotherhood.
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all indigenous and Diaspora ethnic groups of African descent. Based on a common goal dating back to the Atlantic slave trade, the movement extends beyond continental Africans with a substantial support base among the African Diaspora in the Americas and Europe.

Pan-Africanism can be said to have its origins in the struggles of the African people against enslavement and colonization and this struggle may be traced back to the first resistance on slave ships—rebellions and suicides—through the constant plantation and colonial uprisings and the "Back to Africa" movements of the 19th century. Based on the belief that unity is vital to economic, social, and political progress and aims to "unify and uplift" people of African descent.
At its core, Pan-Africanism is a belief that "African people, both on the continent and in the Diaspora, share not merely a common history, but a common destiny". Pan-Africanist intellectual, cultural, and political movements tend to view all Africans and descendants of Africans as belonging to a single "race" and/or sharing cultural unity. Pan-Africanism posits a sense of a shared historical fate for Africans in America, West Indies, and on the continent, itself centered on the Atlantic trade in slaves, African slavery, and European imperialism.
Pan-African thought influenced the establishment of the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union) in 1963. The African Union Commission has its seat in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and the Pan-African Parliament has its seat in Johannesburg and Midrand, South Africa.


Pan-Africanism stresses the need for "collective self-reliance". Pan-Africanism exists as a governmental and grassroots objective. Pan-African advocates include leaders such as Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Haile Selassie, Julius Nyerere, Robert Sobukwe, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Kwame Nkrumah, King Sobhuza II, Robert Mugabe, Thomas Sankara, Dr. John Pombe Magufuli, Muammar Gaddafi, Nnamdi Azikiwe, grassroots organizers such as Joseph Robert Love, Marcus Garvey, and Malcolm X, academics such as W. E. B. Du Bois, Anténor Firmin and others in the Diaspora. Pan-Africanists believe that solidarity will enable the continent to fulfill its potential to independently provide for its entire people. Crucially, an all-African alliance would empower African people globally.
The realization of the Pan-African objective would lead to "power consolidation in Africa", which "would compel a reallocation of global resources, as well as unleashing a fiercer psychological energy and political assertion ... that would unsettle social and political (power) the Americas".

Advocates of Pan-Africanism—i.e. "Pan-Africans" or "Pan-Africanists"—often champion socialist principles and tend to be opposed to external political and economic involvement on the continent. Critics accuse the ideology of homogenizing the experience of people of African descent. They also point to the difficulties of reconciling current divisions within countries on the continent and within communities in the diaspora.
As originally conceived by Henry Sylvester Williams (although some historians credit the idea to Edward Wilmot Blyden), Pan-Africanism referred to the unity of all continental Africa.
During apartheid South Africa there was a Pan Africanist Congress led by Robert Sobukwe that dealt with the oppression of Africans in South Africa under Apartheid rule. Other Pan-Africanist organizations include: Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association-African Communities League, Trans-Africa and the International People's Democratic Uhuru Movement.
Additionally, Pan-Africanism is seen as an endeavour to return to what is deemed by its proponents as singular, traditional African concepts about culture, society, and values. Examples of this include Léopold Sédar Senghor's Négritude movement, and Mobutu Sese Seko's view of Authenticité.

An important theme running through much Pan-Africanist literature concerns the historical links between different countries on the continent and the benefits of cooperation as a way of resisting imperialism and colonialism.

In the 21st century, some Pan-Africanists aim to address globalization and the problems of environmental justice. For instance, at the conference "Pan-Africanism for a New Generation" held at the University of Oxford, June 2011, Ledum Mittee, the current president of the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), argued that environmental justice movements across the African continent should create horizontal linkages in order to better protect the interests of threatened peoples and the ecological systems in which they are embedded, and upon which their survival depends.

Some universities went as far as creating "Departments of Pan-African Studies" in the late 1960s. This includes the California State University, where that department was founded in 1969 as a direct reaction to the civil rights movement, and is today dedicated to "teaching students about the African World Experience", to "demonstrate to the campus and the community the richness, vibrance, diversity, and vitality of African, African American, and Caribbean cultures" and to "presenting students and the community with an Afrocentric analysis" of anti-black racism. Syracuse University also offers a master's degree in "Pan African Studies".

The flags of numerous states in Africa and of Pan-African groups use green, yellow and red. This colour combination was originally adopted from the 1897 flag of Ethiopia, and was inspired by the fact that Ethiopia is the continent's oldest independent nation, thus making the Ethiopian green, yellow, and red the closest visual representation of Pan-Africanism. This is in comparison to the Black Nationalist flag, representing political theory centred around the eugenicist caste-stratified colonial Americas.

The UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) flag is a tri-color flag consisting of three equal horizontal bands of (from top-down) red, black and green. The UNIA formally adopted it on August 13, 1920, during its month-long convention at Madison Square Garden in New York.
Variations of the flag have been used in various countries and territories in Africa and the Americas to represent Black Nationalist ideologies. Among these are the flags of Malawi, Kenya, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several Pan-African organizations and movements have also often employed the emblematic red, black and green tri-color scheme in variety of contexts.

• 1. The relationship between brothers.
"The bonds of brotherhood"
Similar: Comradeship, Fellowship, Brotherliness, Fraternalism, Kinship, Companionship, Camaraderie, Friendship, Amity, Rapport, Esprit de corps
• 2. An association or community of people linked by a common interest, religion, or trade.
"A religious brotherhood"

Brotherhood is a very important part of a male’s life. Without brotherhood, there would be a lack of direction in life. Also, with life without brotherhood, there would be a lack of motivation and problem solving.

Brotherhood is very important in a male’s life. Brotherhood can start all the way back when you are playing on the playground with your friends while you were a toddler. When we are young we are so eager to learn and test out new things and the people who show us things are our parents, siblings and friends. These people represent a teacher for males throughout life. At a young age there is a few main things that are very important to learn from your family and friends, and that is how to interact with people.

Brotherhood: How do you treat your Mother's children? This is how you must treat other members of your Brotherhood.

To treat one another in a "spirit of brotherhood" means that individuals should, in a figurative or symbolical sense, treat each other in such a way as proper to the relation of a brother.

Brotherhood vs Fraternity - What's the difference?
Fraternity is a synonym of brotherhood.
Brotherhood is a synonym of fraternity.

As nouns the difference between brotherhood and fraternity is that brotherhood is the state of being brothers or a brother while fraternity is the quality of being brothers; brotherhood.
Here are the 5 characteristics of Brotherhood.

• Love - Love is a choice. ...
• Sacrifice - Being at someone's side regardless of the cost.
• Faithfulness - Being dependable through good times and bad.
• Honesty - Someone that's willing to be truthful even when it is hard.
• Trust - Faithfulness and honesty build trust.

1. LOVE - “Love is a choice. It is about putting someone else before oneself.”
This goes beyond warm feelings and a bond. Love is a choice. It is about putting someone else before oneself. It’s about giving someone else honor. All of the characteristics below are born out of love. We were created to love and to be loved. It is the deepest human need. Is there a friend you have loved without looking for anything in return?

2. SACRIFICE - Being at someone’s side regardless of the cost. It’s the willingness to give up things of significant worth for the benefit of another. Sacrifice can be shown in big ways like traveling a considerable distance to be with a friend in need. It can be shown in smaller ways like losing some sleep by taking a late night phone call. In what ways have you sacrificed for a friend lately?

3. FAITHFULNESS - Being dependable through good times and bad. Someone your friends can truly count on. You endure and are consistently reliable. When things were at their worst, Shughart and Gordon were by Durant’s side. They shared his burden when they didn’t have to. How can you share in a friend’s burden?

4. HONESTY - Someone that’s willing to be truthful even when it is hard. “As iron sharpens iron, so does one man to another.” We sharpen one another by holding one another accountable when we get out of line. It takes courage to say the difficult thing when we see a friend going down a destructive path. We have to be willing to be vulnerable with our weaknesses first in many circumstances. Is there a friend you can be completely real with?

5. TRUST - Faithfulness and honesty build trust. You have won your friend’s full confidence. This is earned. As you do this over time, the bond will grow deeper and you become brothers in arms. More will be shared and the part you will play in your friend’s life will increase. How much trust have you earned with your friends? These characteristics feed one another. As you live this out, your friendships will become richer.

My dear brothers, above are the basic essentials and the foundation of Neo-Blackism

Every other thing na Jara……….Every other thing is an added on.

• ^ Austin, David (Fall 2007). "All Roads Led to Montreal: Black Power, the Caribbean and the Black Radical Tradition in Canada". Journal of African American History. 92 (4): 516–539. doi:10.1086/JAAHv92n4p516. S2CID 140509880.
• ^ Oloruntoba-Oju, Omotayo (December 2012). "Pan Africanism, Myth and History in African and Caribbean Drama". Journal of Pan African Studies. 5(8): 190 ff.
• ^ Abdul-Raheem, Tajudeen, Pan Africanism: Politics, Economy and Social Change in the Twenty-first Century.
• ^ Frick, Janari, et al. (2006), History: Learner's Book, p. 235, South Africa: New Africa Books.
• ^ Makalani, Minkah (2011), "Pan-Africanism". Africana Age.
• ^ "Pan-Africanism - Origins And Development Of Pan-africanism, Transnational Pan-africanism, Pan-africanism In The Early Twentieth Century".
• ^ New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. The Gale Group, Inc. 2005.
• ^ Abrahamsen, Rita (2020). "Internationalists, sovereigntists, nativists: Contending visions of world order in Pan-Africanism". Review of International Studies. 46 (1): 56–74. doi:10.1017/S0260210519000305. ISSN 0260-2105.
• ^ About the African Union Archived January 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
• ^ "Pan-Africanism". Encyclopedia Britannica
▪Looking in the popular culture mirror
▪All Pro Dad

Thank you….